On appeal by the European Commission, Member States, and other stakeholders, EASA developed a proposal for proportionate, an operation centric, risk- and performance-related regulatory framework for all uncrewed aircraft (UA). A general idea, setting three sections of UAS operations (‘open,’ ‘specific’ and ‘certified’) with different security provisions, proportionate to the threat, was introduced with the publication of Advance Notice of Proposed Amendment (A-NPA 2015-10) in July 2015 and a Technical Opinion in December 2015.
The main classes of UAS operations are:
- The ‘open’ class is a category of UAS operation that, considering the risks involved, do not require a prior authorization from the competent authority nor a statement by the UAS operator before the operation takes place;
- The ‘specific’ class is a division of UAS operation which, considering the risks involved, requires an authorization from the competent authority before the process occurs, taking into consideration the mitigation measures identified in an operational risk assessment, except for specific regular scenarios where a statement by the operator is adequate or if the operator holds a light UAS operator certification (LUC) with the suitable rights;
- The ‘certified’ category is a kind of UA operation which, considering the risks involved requires the certificate of the UAS, a certified remote pilot and an operator approved by the competent authority, to be able to guarantee an appropriate level of security.